- 0 (Registered)
This course was developed in response to four (4) key objectives of the food and agriculture sector in the Caribbean; a region consisting mainly of Small Island Developing States. These objectives, which provide the framework for this syllabus, are to achieve the goal of food and nutrition security; adopt sustainable agricultural approaches that are responsive to an uncertain physical and economic environment; contribute to economic diversification through transformation of communities and
improvement of livelihoods; and ensure that the human resource capacity available to the sector is adequate in quantity and quality.
This course aims to:
- develop knowledge and understanding of the importance of agriculture as it relates to food and nutrition security and the economies of the territories of the Caribbean Region;
- provide knowledge of the dynamic nature of agricultural production, post-production and marketing in a complex national, regional and international market;
- develop an appreciation of the importance of sustainable agriculture for the preservation of the environment;
- develop an appreciation of the importance of agriculture in providing multiple pathways to employment and further education;
- develop scientific and technical competencies, and transferable skills such as critical thinking, innovativeness, team work, problem solving, communication, and other life skills;
- foster dispositions such as concern for others, ethical conduct, stewardship of resources, and a keen interest in participation in national, regional and international affairs;
- develop competencies in the application of appropriate modern technologies.
SECTION A: INTRODUCTION TO AGRICULTURE (Agricultural Science and Agriculture) On completion of this section, students should: 1. understand the concept of agricultural science and agriculture; 2. understand the role of agriculture in the local, regional and international economies; 3. be aware of the role of support services in modern agricultural economies; and, 4. be aware of the challenges affecting agriculture locally and regionally.
SECTION A: INTRODUCTION TO AGRICULTURE (Role of Agriculture and Support Services)
SECTION A: INTRODUCTION TO AGRICULTURE (Challenges in Agriculture)
SECTION B: CROP PRODUCTION (Anatomy and Physiology) On completion of this section, students should: 1. understand the relationships between the physical environment and agriculture; 2. develop practical and investigative skills; 3. understand the structure and functions of plants; 4. understand the stages of crop growth in relation to yield; 5. produce vegetable crops efficiently and profitably; 6. develop safe practices in handling chemicals in crop production; 7. understand how crops can be improved by breeding, selection and biotechnology; 8. understand the significance of the various stages of maturity in relation to harvesting times; and, 9. understand the methods and importance of preserving crops
- Explain the uses of plants in agriculture;
- Describe the external and internal structure of plants;
- Describe the physiological functions of plants;
- Distinguish between sexual and asexual reproduction in plants;
- Demonstrate the techniques used in plant propagation;
- Describe conditions necessary for germination of seeds, growing of seedlings and vegetative propagation.
SECTION B: CROP PRODUCTION (Environmental factors affecting crop growth)
- Discuss the effects of environmental factors on plant growth and development;
- Describe the process of soil formation;
- Explain the importance of a soil profile;
- Describe the major components of soil;
- Describe the physical and chemical properties of soil types;
- Describe the availability of soil water for crop use;
- Explain the causes and effects of soil erosion;
- State the importance of major nutrients used in crop production;
- Explain the factors affecting soil fertility;
- Explain how soil fertility can be maintained;
- Explain soil and water conservation methods.
SECTION B: CROP PRODUCTION (Genetics, breeding and biotechnology)
SECTION B: CROP PRODUCTION (Land preparation and farm machinery)
SECTION B: CROP PRODUCTION (Crop management)
- Cultivate a fruit, root, and leaf crop;
- Describe the major cropping systems;
- Discuss the benefits of the cultural practices associated with crop production;
- Explain the effects of weeds on crop production;
- Identify insect pests and the damages they caused;
- Identify the cause, symptoms and mode of transmission of major crop diseases;
- Explain the effects of indiscriminate use of chemicals in the environment;
- Recommend the appropriate methods of control of weeds, pests and disease management;
- Explain the importance of plant quarantine.
SECTION B: CROP PRODUCTION (Harvesting and Post Production Management)
SECTION C: ANIMAL PRODUCTION (Introduction to animal sciences) On completion of this section, students should: 1. demonstrate an understanding of livestock production in the Caribbean region; 2. understand the principles of good management practices of the rearing of livestock; 3. understand the technologies used in producing animals and animal products; 4. demonstrate an understanding of the scientific principles that inform livestock production, management and technologies; 5. appreciate the economic importance to be derived from the rearing of livestock; and, 6. develop practical and investigative skills.
SECTION C: ANIMAL PRODUCTION (Structure, anatomy and physiology)
SECTION C: ANIMAL PRODUCTION (Animal nutrition and management)
- State the functions of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins and water;
- Explain ‘a complete ration’;
- Select appropriate rations for each stage of growth of broilers and layers;
- Calculate Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR);
- Explain the importance of FCR;
- Describe systems of grazing;
- State the advantages and disadvantages of different grazing systems;
- Explain the importance of forages (grasses and legumes) in livestock feeding;
- Explain the measures used to feed ruminants when forage is unavailable;
- Describe the management practices associated with the care of baby chicks and baby rabbits (kittens);
- Explain the management practices associated with rearing broilers, layers and rabbits;
- Rear a batch of 50 broilers per term;
- Describe the general signs of illness in farm animals;
- Identify the cause, clinical signs prevention and control of pests and diseases of poultry and rabbits;
- Identify the cause, signs, prevention and control of internal parasites of livestock;
- Explain the factors to be considered in establishment and management of a fish farm;
- Explain the factors to be considered in the siting and establishment of an apiary;
- Explain the economic importance of bees;
- Differentiate among the types of bees in a hive;
- Describe the social activities of bees;
- Identify the causes, symptoms, prevention, control and cure of pests and diseases infestation in bees;
- Describe the harvesting of honey and other bee products.
SECTION C: ANIMAL PRODUCTION (Animal genetics, breeding and reproduction)
- Explain different breeding systems in animal production;
- Explain the advantages of cross-breeding;
- Explain genetic engineering in livestock production;
- Differentiate among the terms: (a) ovulation; (b) fertilisation; (c) gestation; (d) oestrous cycle; and, (e) kindling, parturition, farrowing.
- Describe the process of artificial insemination (AI) in farm animals;
- Evaluate the use of AI in farm animals;
- State the benefits of oestrus synchronisation;
- Relate the structure of the parts of an egg to its function;
- Describe the process of incubation in poultry.
SECTION C: ANIMAL PRODUCTION (Animal products)
- Demonstrate proper procedures in slaughtering, dressing and handling farm animals;
- Determine the dressing percentage of different farm animals;
- List the principal farm animal products and byproducts including those derived from the offal;
- Demonstrate the practices involved in rearing layer birds and the production of eggs.
SECTION D: THE BUSINESS OF FARMING (Economic factors of production) On completion of this section, students should: 1. understand that the farm is an economic unit engaged in profitable production of commodities; 2. appreciate that success in any business venture is dependent on proper planning, management and accurate record keeping; 3. understand the importance of marketing as an economic activity that links production to consumption; and, 4. understand the role of international trade agreements and their impact on the agricultural sector.
SECTION D: THE BUSINESS OF FARMING (Farm financing and support services)
SECTION D: THE BUSINESS OF FARMING (Farm organisation and planning)
SECTION D: THE BUSINESS OF FARMING (Marketing of agricultural products)
SECTION E: CROP AND ANIMAL MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES (Environmental monitoring) On completion of this section, students should: 1. appreciate the importance of data collection and use in decision making in crop and livestock management; 2. employ good agricultural practices in crop and livestock production, and post-production management; 3. demonstrate the use of appropriate technologies for crop and livestock production, and postproduction management; 4. appreciate the importance of value chains in the agriculture sector; and, 5. appreciate the use of farm buildings and machinery in the crop and livestock production, and post-harvest management.
SECTION E: CROP AND ANIMAL MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES (Nursery management technologies)
- Demonstrate the preparation of compost using suitable materials;
- Prepare appropriate propagation and growing media for seedlings and vegetatively propagated crops;
- Demonstrate proper handling procedures for different types of media;
- Assess seed quality;
- Recommend suitable seed storage procedures;
- Demonstrate proper procedures and choice of equipment for establishing plants in a nursery
SECTION E: CROP AND ANIMAL MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES (Technologies for non-conventional crop production)
- Explain the importance of alternative crop production systems in the Caribbean;
- Recommend crop cultivars that are tolerant or resistant to specific abiotic and biotic stresses;
- Design a suitable cropping system for production of a crop under conditions of environmental stress using appropriate techniques and technologies;
- Recommend appropriate strategies for water and nutrition management;
- Demonstrate the use of simple water and nutrition management technologies;
- Design an integrated pest management programme;
- Demonstrate the use of pest management technologies;
- Apply other required crop management strategies.
SECTION E: CROP AND ANIMAL MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES (Management practices for livestock)
- Demonstrate the practices involved in the care of young farm animals;
- Suggest the housing requirements for different classes of livestock;
- Describe management practices in the rearing livestock;
- Identify the major pests and diseases affecting different classes of livestock;
- Implement control measures for various pests and diseases;
- Discuss the role of biotechnology in animal production.
SECTION E: CROP AND ANIMAL MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES (Harvesting, post-harvesting management and value addition)
SECTION E: CROP AND ANIMAL MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES (Post production handling and processing of livestock)
SECTION E: CROP AND ANIMAL MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES (Agro-engineering)
- Design simple farm structures;
- Recommend suitable materials for use in farm buildings;
- Demonstrate the safety precautions in the operation of tools, machinery and equipment;
- Describe the use and operation of mechanical systems in farm equipment;
- Demonstrate the appropriate care and maintenance of simple tools and equipment.
SECTION F: ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND COMMUNICATION IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR (Entrepreneurship in agriculture) On completion of this section, students should: 1. appreciate the importance of entrepreneurship to the agricultural sector; 2. understand the importance of effective communication to the success of an enterprise; 3. employ a range of tools and techniques to communicate effectively to different audiences; and, 4. demonstrate the use of effective planning for the establishment of a new enterprise.
- Discuss the concept of entrepreneurship;
- Discuss the forms of business organisations and arrangements;
- Explain the steps in the establishing an agricultural enterprise;
- Discuss the importance of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT) analysis in decision making for agricultural enterprises;
- Identify the factors that contribute to the success and failure of entrepreneurs in agricultural enterprises;
- Explain the purpose of key financial statements in decision making.
SECTION E: CROP AND ANIMAL MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES (Communication in Agri-Business)
- Describe the various channels of communication used in agricultural enterprises;
- Identify factors affecting the selection of communication channel;
- Discuss the barriers to effective communication;
- Explain the advantages and disadvantages of different communication tools and technologies;
- Communicate effectively for different purposes within and outside of the food and agriculture sector