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The application of scientific principles and the conduct of relevant research are of significant importance in identifying, assessing and realising the potential of the resources of Caribbean territories. A good foundation in the sciences will help citizens of the Caribbean to respond to the challenges of a rapidly changing world using the scientific approach. Chemistry is concerned with the physical and chemical properties of substances and the interaction of energy and matter. The study of Chemistry involves an investigation into chemical reactions and processes. The discipline seeks to explain and predict events at the atomic and molecular level. Through the principles of Chemistry, students will understand everyday life, nature and technology, and the significance of the well-being of man and the environment.
This syllabus aims to:
- appreciate and understand natural phenomena and the ways in which materials behave;
- be aware of the power, impact and influence which Chemistry has in a modern scientific world and to emphasise that there is a responsibility that Chemistry be used for the good of the society and for the preservation of the environment;
- appreciate, understand and use methods of science;
- see the relevance of Chemistry to everyday life;
- appreciate and understand the role of Chemistry in enabling materials to be used in the service of mankind, in the Caribbean and elsewhere;
- understand basic chemical concepts in sufficient depth to provide an adequate foundation for specialisation;
- develop the spirit of inquiry and to continue the search for new ways in which materials may be used in the service of mankind;
- appreciate the inter-relationships among Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Mathematics and other subjects;
- make use of chemical data, concepts, principles and terminology in communicating chemical information;
- develop the ability to work independently and collaboratively with others when necessary;
- appreciate the significance and limitations of science in relation to social and economic development;
- integrate Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools and skills into the teaching and learning of chemical concepts.
SECTION A - PRINCIPLES OF CHEMISTRY - STATES OF MATTER Section A is designed as an introduction to fundamental chemical concepts and principles. A study of the particulate nature of matter, structure, bonding, chemical properties and physical properties of elements, compounds and mixtures is included as well as certain quantitative properties. Comprehension of these concepts and principles will help students appreciate the importance of chemistry as it relates to the environment and the daily activities of man
- explain how evidence supports the particulate theory of matter;
- distinguishamong the three states of matter
- explain the changesbetween the three states of matter in terms of energy and arrangement of particles.
- distinguish between pure substances and mixtures;
- distinguish among solutions, suspensions and colloids;
- identify different types of solutions;
- investigate the effect of temperature on solubility of solids in water;
- applysuitable separation techniques based on differences in properties of the components of mixtures;
- describe the extraction of sucrose from sugar cane.
- describe with illustrations, the structure of atoms of atomic number 1 to 20;
- state properties of electrons, protons and neutrons;
- define atomic number and mass number;
- define relative atomic mass;
- interpret notations of the form a c X b d
- define isotopy;
- list uses of radioactive isotopes.
- explain the basis for the arrangement of elements in the periodic table;
- explain trends in Group II;
- explaintrends in Group VII;
- identify trends in period 3;
- predict properties of unknown elements based on the position in periodic table.
- explain the formation of ionic and covalent bonds;
- predict the likelihood of an atom forming an ionic or a covalent bond based on atomic structure;
- write formulae to represent ions, molecules and formula units;
- explain metallic bonding
- describe ionic crystals, simple molecular crystals and giant molecular crystals;
- distinguish between ionic and molecular solids;
- relate structure of sodium chloride, diamond and graphite to their propertiesand uses;
- explain the term allotropy.
- define mole and molar mass;
- perform calculationsinvolving the mole;
- state Avogadro’s Law;
- state the Law of Conservation of Matter;
- write balanced equations;
- apply the mole concept to equations, both ionic and molecular;
- define the term standard solution.
- define acid, acid anhydride, base, alkali, salt, acidic, basic, amphoteric and neutral oxides;
- relate acidity and alkalinity to the pH scale;
- discuss the strength of acids and alkalis on the basis of their completeness of ionisation;
- investigate the reactions of non- oxidising acids;
- list examples of acids in living systems;
- investigate the reaction of bases with ammonium salts;
- identify an appropriate method of salt preparation based on the solubility of the salt;
- list the uses and dangers of salts;
- distinguish between acid salts and normal salts
- investigate neutralisation reactions using indicators and temperature changes;
- perform calculationsusing volumetric analysis data.
- investigatethe action of common oxidising and reducing substances in everyday activities;
- define oxidation and reduction;
- deduce oxidation number from formulae;
- identify oxidation and reduction reactions including reactions at electrodes;
- distinguish between oxidising and reducing agents;
- perform tests for oxidising and reducing agents.
- conductinvestigations leading to the classification of substances as conductors or non-conductors;
- distinguish between metallic and electrolytic conduction;
- classify electrolytes as strong or weak based on their conductivity;
- define electrolysis,cathode, anode, cation, anion
- identify ions present in electrolytes;
- predict the electrode to which an ion will drift;
- predictchemical reactions making use of electrochemical series;
- discuss the electrolysis of certain substances;
- define the Faraday constant;
- calculate the masses and volumes of substances liberated during electrolysis
- describe industrial applications of electrolysis.
SECTION B – ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Section B involves the study of the sources and nature of the compounds of carbon. The classification of the carbon compounds in terms of some functional groups, their structures, physical and chemical properties and their uses should also be presented.
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY -AN INTRODUCTION
- illustrate that carbon atoms can form single and double bonds, branched and unbranched chains and ring compounds
- write formulae to represent simple organic compounds;
- list the general characteristics of a homologous series
- write general and molecular formulae for members of a given homologous series;
- deducethehomologous series given the fully displayed and condensed formulae of compounds
- write fully displayed structures and names of branched and unbranched alkanes and unbranched alkenes, alcohols, and alkanoic acid;
- define structural isomerism
- write the fully displayed structures of isomers given their molecular formulae.
REACTIONS OF CARBON COMPOUNDS
- describe the reactions of alkanes and alkenes;
- relate the characteristic reactions of alkanes and alkenes to their structures;
- distinguish between alkanes and alkenes;
- relate the properties of hydrocarbons to their uses;
- identify alcohols, acids and esters by their functional groups;
- relate the properties of alcohols, acids and to their functional groups;
- describe the reactions of ethanol;
- describe the fermentation process by which ethanol is produced from carbohydrates;
- describe the reactions of ethanoic acid;
- explain hydrolysis of esters including saponification;
- compare soapy and soapless detergents;
- define polymers;
- distinguish between addition and.condensation as.reactions in the.formation of.polymers;
- state at least one use of each of the following types of polymers.
SECTION C – INORGANIC CHEMISTRY Metals and non-metals are two types of elements which, based on their reactivity, can exist as free elements or in a combined state as compounds. The methods of extraction of metals and the laboratory preparation of some non-metals are investigated. A study of the physical properties, chemical properties and the uses of metals, non-metals and their compounds is integrally linked to their impact on living systems and the environment.
REACTIVITYAND EXTRACTION OF METALS
IMPACT OF METALS ON LIVING SYSTEMS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
- describe the physical and chemical properties of non-metals;
- describe the laboratory preparation of gases;
- explain the use of gases based on their properties;
- list uses of the non-metals: carbon, sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine, nitrogen, silicon and their compounds;
- discussthe harmful effects of non-metal on living systems and the environment;
- relate the unique properties of water to its functions in living systems;
- discuss the consequences of the solvent properties of water;
- describe the methods used in the treatment of water for domestic purposes;
- define Green Chemistry;
- outline the principles of Green Chemistry.